UC Riverside May have Found a Way for Restricting Spread of Ovarian Cancer
Published : 01 Jun 2021 Industry: Healthcare
The treatment of ovarian cancer depends upon the type of cancer like epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumours etc Researches have proved that ovarian cancer is diagnosed in around 3,00,000 women every year causing roughly 1,80,000 deaths. According to 2020 reports, ovarian cancer was detected in approximately 21,750 women and caused 13,940 women to die in the United States. The major reason leading to this condition is the late diagnosis and lack of effective second-line therapy for women who relapse.
The University of California Riverside continues to conduct researches on the effective treatment and diagnosis of ovarian cancer amongst the women. Recently, it has found that proper therapies that provide long-lasting relief are required to treat the patients with normal BRCA genes.
The researchers have come up with some promising therapies which are still under trial for treating the deadly disease including vaccines like DPX- Survivac, Protein therapies like AVB-S6-500, Gene therapies like Ofranergene Obadenovec, Immunotherapies like the Anti-PD-L1 antibody MEDI4736, Antibody drug conjugates like Mirvetuximab Soravtansine, Targeted therapies like the ATR Inhibitor AZD6738, Anti-DLL4/VEGF Bispecific Antibody Navicixizumab etc.
Further, the researchers at UC Riverside are claiming that the use of hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy i.e., HIPEC immediately after the debulking surgery can improve survival rates for stage 3 epithelial ovarian cancer patients. The likelihood of surviving for over five years rises to about 50 per cent with this type of treatment than 30 per cent without it.
Their researchers also claims that PARP inhibitors are more effective in the patients without an inherited BRCA mutation but have a DNA repair deficiency in their cancerous cells. UC Riverside is still exploring and finding ways to bring more effective diagnosis procedures, medications and therapies for ovarian cancer.
A pair of researchers from UC Riverside have claimed discovery of a mechanism, which would stop ovarian cancer from spreading further. Ovarian cancer has been the deadliest cancer for women. Oleg Kim and Mark Alber, along with their team of researchers have published their study in Oncology Times. The study published details how a monoclonal antibody, known as GC-4, was utilized for blocking a protein that was responsible for allowing the ovarian cancer cells in latching on to other cells, and penetrate into them.
Alber and Kim’s Involvement in Medical Research Implies Cross-Disciplinary Push by Universities for Addressing a Critical Issue
Kim and Alber, both arrived at the UCR in the previous year, are planning to work in Duarte, with City of Hope, in order to perform studies on human patients. This might hopefully lead to the development of an effective drug for treatment of ovarian cancer.
A surprising fact is that both Kim and Alber work in the mathematics department of UCR, and neither of them is a biologist. Their involvement in the medical research implies some of the universities’ cross-disciplinary push over the past decade, wherein researchers of different expertise combine their talents for addressing an important issue.
According to Alber, beyond mathematics and calculus lies mathematical modelling, and these researchers observe the biological process by continuously conversing with medical doctors and biologists. Then further gaining knowledge about imperative aspects, Alber and his team utilize the information for depicting and predicting the operation of biological systems.
In case of the study of ovarian cancer, the researchers modeled the behavior related to two types of a protein, named cadherin, including the interaction process of cells with abdominal tissue. One type of this protein, N-cadherin, helps cancer cells to enter healthy tissue, while the other type, E-cadherin are incapable of breaking into the walls of healthy cells. The GC-4 antibody developed by Kim and Alber makes N-cadherin carrying cells to behave in the way of E-cadherin protein.
Researchers Focusing on Study of Blood Clots
Alber emphasizes on the criticality of stopping ovarian cancer from spreading, as the disease depicts few early symptoms, and is usually metastasized prior to its discovery. Alber and Kim are also focusing on research of blood clots, utilizing computer models for representing the formation of blood clots, and their impacts on health.
When a blood vessel is injured, blood clots are formed, patching any disruption in the wall of vessel. When these clots get larger, they become capable of blocking blood vessels. Occurrence of such cases in the brain can result into a stroke. Pieces of clots may potentially cause embolism by breaking off into the bloodstream.
While studying the mechanical stability of blood clots, Alber discerned at their composition, their interaction with one another, and how these interactions can affect the blood flow. The blood clot model’s development has been attributed to significant success in molecular imaging.
UCR has recently made the provision of a supercomputer lab, which is linked with many of the largest supercomputers across the globe. Alber and Kim look at the future in a way of cross-discipline collaborations, which they have utilized in their work.
These researchers seem to be one step ahead in discovering an advanced method for stopping the propagation of ovarian cancer incidences. According to a latest study, the global ovarian cancer diagnostics market is expected to witness a steady rise. This further necessitates developments in drugs and treatment procedures for complete eradication of ovarian cancer.