In the recent decades, the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in the molecular biology space has been subjected to a lot of research. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a robust tool used to characterize various strains at the DNA level, to obtain useful information on genome size and to create the physical and genetic map of bacteria chromosome that are poorly understood at the genetic level. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is also used in isolating chromosomes in microorganisms, and in the long-range mapping of mammalian genes, and can also examine the extended and oriented configuration of huge DNA molecules in agarose gels at finite field strengths.
Genome analysis based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has a wide range of applications ranging from typing bacterial strains to radiobiology to cancer research, which could bring some traction in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis market. The methods for running pulsed-field gel electrophoresis have positively changed since its invention, but the method for preparing chromosomal DNA itself is essentially unchanged, which continues to restrict pulsed-field gel electrophoresis applicability, especially when analyses require many samples.
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has been an integral part of food safety testing for long, and is still in use today, however it is quickly being replaced. For instance, FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) has recently moved from PFGE to WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing) for analyzing Salmonella and Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) Isolates, as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis doesn’t differentiate isolates to the same degree that can be accomplished by WGS.
Introduced in 1982 by Schwartz et al. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a laboratory technique used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint for a bacterial isolate (a group of the same type of bacteria). By comparing the fingerprints of any two isolates, one can investigate if they belong to the same strain (i.e. the two isolates are clonal) or if they are genetically unrelated. PFGE is a powerful tool for characterizing various strains at the DNA level, obtaining relevant information on genome size and constructing the physical and genetic map of the chromosome of bacteria, in separating chromosomes in microorganisms, and in the long-range mapping of mammalian genes. PFGE is a highly discriminative molecular typing technique based upon the variable migration of large DNA restriction fragments in an electrical field of alternating polarity. The implementation of PFGE in international surveillance networks, such as PulseNet, and the availability of standardized protocols for important foodborne pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, Campylobacter) have facilitated the adoption of this technique. Though more recent typing methods are available, however, PFGE is still the gold standard in many national and international surveillance programs.
Apart from having advantage of examining the elongated and oriented configuration of large DNA molecules in agarose gels at finite field strengths, PFGE is having various other applications also. Such as, high concordance with epidemiological relatedness, stable and reproducible DNA restriction patterns, and can be applied as a universal generic subtyping method for many different bacteria with only the choice of the restriction enzyme and electrophoresis conditions optimized for each species. Besides, PFGE is said to be more discriminating than methods such as ribotyping or multi-locus sequence typing for many bacteria. Moreover, PFGE has shown excellent ability to separate small, natural linear chromosomal DNAs ranging in size from 50-kb parasite microchromosomes to multimillion-bp yeast chromosomes. However, intact human chromosomes range in size from 50 million to 250 million bp (Mb), too large for direct PFGE separations.
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Market: Drivers and Restraints
Primary factors driving Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market include growing need for safe and effective guiding technology during isolation. PulseNet investigates bacterial isolates from sick people, contaminated food, and the places where food is produced. PFGE is the said to be the gold standard fingerprinting method used within PulseNet. However, some limitations of PFGE hindering the growth of pulsed field gel electrophoresis market. Time consuming process, inability to discriminate between all unrelated isolates, variation in DNA restriction patterns, and inability to optimize separation in every part of the gel at the same time, are the main limiting factors which are restricting the growth of the market. Besides, bands of same size may not come from the same part of the chromosome, change in one restriction site can result in more than one band change, and inability to differentiate isolates to the same degree that can be achieved by whole genome sequencing (WGS) are other key restraining factors.
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Market: Segmentation
Tentatively, the global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market has been segmented on the basis of indication, end users, and geography.
Based on Types, the global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market is segmented as:
- Rotating Gel Electrophoresis (RGE)
- Field-Inversion Gel Electrophoresis (FIGE)
- Transverse-Alternating Field Gel Electrophoresis (TAFE)
- Contour-Clamped Homogeneous Electric Fields (CHEF)
- Orthogonal-Field Alternation Gel Electrophoresis (OFAGE)
- Programmable Autonomously-Controlled Electrodes (PACE)
- Pulsed-Homogeneous Orthogonal Field Gel Electrophoresis (PHOGE)
Based on applications, the global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market is segmented as:
- Separation of chromosomes
- Restriction mapping of chromosome regions
- DNA fragment purification
Based on end user, the global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market is segmented as:
- Private Laboratories
- Biopharmaceuticals Companies
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Market: Overview
The global market for pulsed field gel electrophoresis is highly consolidated with very few players operating in the global space. The widespread use of yeast artificial chromosomes as cloning vectors, has created a demand for reliable method to recover intact chromosomal DNA from preparative pulsed field gels. Moreover, the increasing applications is also propelling the pulsed field gel electrophoresis market. The isolated DNA can be used in a variety of procedure including micro injection into mammalian cells and creation of cosmid and phage sub libraries. However, the high cost of the PFGE system dictates that it should be used in a laboratory with heavy demand for genotyping not just for N gonorrhoeae, but with other organisms as well. Moreover, presence of other procedure of isolation is also hindering the growth. Such as, the poplopa genotyping method has the potential to offer more relevant information, because two specific genes have been targeted and not the entire chromosomes, as with PFGE. However, the por genotyping system will not identify as many different genotypes as PFGE when looking at large group of isolates.
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Market: Regional Wise Outlook
Geographically, the global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market is classified into regions viz. North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan, Middle East and Africa. North America is expected to be the leader in global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market owing to concentration of key market players in the region. The market in Asia Pacific excluding China and Japan is expected to grow at significant CAGR due to expansion of product offerings by key players. Europe is expected to take second largest share in the global Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) market throughout the forecast period.
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Market: Key Players
The global pulsed field gel electrophoresis systems market is consolidated market and dominated by the are some leading players such as Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc, Core Life Sciences, Inc., LABREPCO, Analytik Jena AG. Technological advancement in products and expansion of geographical reach are the major trend observed in the global pulsed field gel electrophoresis systems market.
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